It is an annual herbaceous plant that is reformed from graminaes family all over the World. Anatolia, West Iran and Caucasia has been approved as gene capital of wheat in the light of researches that have made by different researchers. It prefers continental climate. Wheat; can be used to produce bread or other baked products, and also can be consumed as bulgur and macaroni, and it is a staple food to produce feed. Wheat has been a matter of producing bioethonol in last 8-10 years.
1- Scab (Bran) constitutes avarage 12% of kernel.
2- Germ (Embryo) constitutes avarage 3% of kernel.
3- İntragranular (Endosperm – part with flour) constitutes avarage 85% of kernel.
Composition of wheat kernel: Wheat kernel has water, carbonhydrates, protein, oil, cellulose, metal materials, enzyme and vitamins. The amounts of these materials in the wheat kernel change in terms of variety and area of breeding. The amounts of these materials are avaragely like this:
- Protein 12,0%
- Water 12,0%
- Carbohydrate 70,0%
- Cellulose 2,2%
- Oils 2,0%
- Ash (Metal materials) 1,8%
Canola plant has come from the Balkans to Turkey. That is known of getting in our lands by way of immigrants who come from this area. The canole that comes as colza planted in Thrace in 1960s, is known as named rapisca and rapitsa too. It has two physiologic terms as summer and winter. A canola piece has about 38%-50% oil. Its protein ratio is between 16% and 24%. Canola oil is on the third line among herbal seedy oils, sunflower, soybean, cotton and peanut.
• It has A, D, K and E vitamins.
• It has plenty of omega-3-fatty acid.
• It is the oil has the most omega 3-6 balance.
• It has plenty of unsaturated fatty acid.
• It has saturated fatty acid in low ratio. (This ratio is 15% in olive oil, 12% in sunflower oil, 7% in canola oil.)
• Its mono unsaturated fatty ratio is low. (This ratio is 73% in olive oil, 63% in canola oil.)
• It supports health of vessel.
• It is good for bones. It assits to avoid diseases of Rachitism and Osteoporosis.
• It has herbal healthy sterols.
• Digestion of canola oil increases the level of omega-3-fatty acid that has long chain in plasma and thrombocyte phospholipids.
• It is protective and developer of health.
• It is durable against high heat while cooking. In this sense it is superior from sunflower oil and olive oil. Its smoke point is medium high. It is an ideal oil to cook high heat meals and to saute by this characteristic.
It is known as bloodstone, helianthus and heliotrope too, because of that its flowers turn to sun. Its homeland is Mexico, it is also bred in many mild climated areas especially Thrace area in Turkey because of its high economical value. Its leafs are basic, its flowers are yellow, big and garish.. It has types that are bred as decoration plant. But its mainly importance is being oil plant. Low acid and yellowish colour, liquid oil is gotten. It is used as cooking and also producing margarin, soap and oil paint. The beens out of oil are eaten to animals.
Hordeum vulgare a plant of Poaceae. This plant’s grains, that used to make bread and malt, get to animal as feed, are barleys. Barley is the oldest cultivated plant in the Poaceae family like wheat. Barley’s the most important consumption area is production of malt and animal feed. Barley is preferable to oat as animal feed. That is explained with production of oil by keeping animal warm. Generally barley’s one of the most areas of usage is production of malt.